Oceanic climate – Jaca Huesca http://jacahuesca.com/ Fri, 25 Jun 2021 23:56:40 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.7.2 https://jacahuesca.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/cropped-icon-32x32.png Oceanic climate – Jaca Huesca http://jacahuesca.com/ 32 32 It’s dry. Who is most likely to rain this weekend? https://jacahuesca.com/its-dry-who-is-most-likely-to-rain-this-weekend/ https://jacahuesca.com/its-dry-who-is-most-likely-to-rain-this-weekend/#respond Fri, 25 Jun 2021 22:35:49 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/its-dry-who-is-most-likely-to-rain-this-weekend/

Friday was a beautiful summer day for most of Minnesota and western Wisconsin.

However, we’re still looking for rain, with about 75 percent of Minnesota currently experiencing drought conditions.

Chance of rain on weekends

Northwestern Minnesota could see a few showers and an isolated thunderstorm Friday night, with this chance of rain spreading into north-central Minnesota overnight. A few scattered showers and thunderstorms are also possible Friday night in extreme southeastern Minnesota.

West central and northern Minnesota could see some showers at times on Saturday, with an isolated thunderstorm also possible. The best chance of torrential downpours on Saturday will be in southeast Minnesota and parts of Wisconsin as an area of ​​low pressure projects moisture into those areas. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NAM) North American Mesoscale (NAM) forecast model shows the potential rainfall pattern on Saturday and Saturday night:

Simulated radar saturday and saturday evening

NOAA, via tropicaltidbits.com

The Twin Cities metro area will be near the northern edge of rain on Saturday and Saturday evening, with some occasional showers and thunderstorms expected.

Scattered showers and thunderstorms are possible throughout Minnesota and western Wisconsin on Sunday.

You can hear updated weather information for Minnesota and Western Wisconsin on Minnesota Public Radio. network, and you can see the updated weather information on the MPR News live weather blog.

Saturday’s highs will mostly be in the upper 70s and lower 80s:

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Highs forecast for Saturday

National Meteorological Service

Saturday’s dew points will be in the comfortable 50s in many areas, with sticky 60s in the southeast:

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Dew point forecast Saturday 1 p.m.

National Meteorological Service

The high temperatures on Sunday will again be mainly in the upper 70s and lower than 80:

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Highs expected on Sunday

National Meteorological Service

Lower 70s are possible in northeast Minnesota.

Sunday dew points will be in the 50s to around 60s:

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Dew point forecast Sunday 1 p.m.

National Meteorological Service

Return to temperatures: Highs for the Twin Cities metro area are expected to be in the lower 80s on Monday and Tuesday, followed by the mid-80s on Wednesday. Our highs drop to around 80 Thursday and Friday next week.

Temperatures may increase slightly for July 4 and the start of the following week. The NWS Climate Prediction Center shows a trend for above normal temperatures in Minnesota and western Wisconsin from July 3-9:

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July 3-9 temperature outlook

NWS Climate Prediction Center

Programming instructions

You can hear my weather updates live on MPR News at 7:35 am, 9:35 am and 4:39 pm every Saturday and Sunday.

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Maryland today | Falling Arctic temperatures accelerate ozone loss, new study finds https://jacahuesca.com/maryland-today-falling-arctic-temperatures-accelerate-ozone-loss-new-study-finds/ https://jacahuesca.com/maryland-today-falling-arctic-temperatures-accelerate-ozone-loss-new-study-finds/#respond Thu, 24 Jun 2021 16:55:24 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/maryland-today-falling-arctic-temperatures-accelerate-ozone-loss-new-study-finds/

Extremely low winter temperatures over the Arctic are becoming more frequent and extreme due to climate patterns associated with warming, according to a new study by an international team of scientists, including a researcher from the University of Maryland. climate. The result is an increase in chemical reactions between substances that humans pumped into the air decades ago, resulting in greater ozone losses.

The new findings challenge the commonly held assumption that ozone loss would start to stop after the 2010 global ban on the production of ozone-depleting chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons.

The study, carried out jointly by UMD, the Helmholtz Center of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and the Finnish Meteorological Institute.appeared yesterday in the review Nature Communication.

“We are in a kind of race between the slow and steady decline of CFCs, which take 50 to 100 years to disappear, and climate change, which is causing the extreme temperatures of the polar vortices to cool rapidly,” Ross said. Salawitch, professor in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Interdisciplinary Center for Earth System Sciences. “The increasingly cold temperatures create conditions which favor the depletion of the ozone layer by CFCs. So even though these compounds are slowly disappearing, arctic ozone depletion is increasing as the climate changes.

New data from the study showed the lowest temperatures in the Arctic Polar Vortex and the highest ozone losses on record in 2020, breaking previous records set in 2011.

The polar vortex is a relatively self-contained low-pressure system that forms in the stratosphere at an elevation of about 12 to 50 kilometers (7.5 to 31 miles) above the Arctic each fall and remains for varying lengths of time. throughout winter to spring.

A trend of more frequent and extreme low temperatures in the polar vortex is of concern to researchers, as these conditions favor cloud formation. This in turn promotes the loss of ozone in the polar stratosphere, as clouds provide the right conditions for atmospheric chlorine to change shape and react with bromine and sunlight to destroy ozone.

Despite the drastic reduction in industrial production of CFCs and halons since the Montreal Protocol in 1987 and the subsequent global ban in 2010, airborne chlorine and bromine produced by humans are not expected to fall below 50 % of their highest levels by the end of this century.

The researchers projected the loss of ozone through 2100 based on the long-term temperature trend in the polar vortex and the expected decline in chlorine and brominate compounds. They based their predictions on the results of the 53 best climate models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

“All of the climate models we’ve looked at except one show that unusually cold winters in the polar vortex will get colder over time,” said Salawitch. “And the more greenhouse gas emissions there are, the stronger the trend, which means greater depletion of the ozone layer.”

By combining these projections with analyzes of meteorological data from the past 56 years, the researchers confirmed that the Arctic is already experiencing a significant trend towards lower stratospheric temperatures and associated increases in ozone loss. Moreover, their observations reveal that these trends are occurring at a rate compatible with the fastest climate change models.

“We are saying that a train has been coming for a number of years now,” said Salawitch, whose previous posts showed extreme Arctic winters were getting colder. “We have now seen the train go at full speed with record ozone loss in 2011 and now in 2020. So this document is really a red flag that something is going on in the atmosphere that is really important for us. ozone, and it looks like a greenhouse gases are driving it.

Because ozone filters out much of the sun’s potentially harmful UV rays, a depleted ozone layer over the Arctic can lead to increased UV radiation reaching the Earth’s surface over Europe. , North America and Asia when the polar vortex plunges south.

But there is hope for preventing future ozone depletion, the researchers say. Their study shows that substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions over the next few decades could lead to a steady decline in conditions conducive to significant ozone loss in the Arctic stratosphere.


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Memoirs of explorer Robert Ballard find wrecks and strange life forms in the darkest parts of the ocean https://jacahuesca.com/memoirs-of-explorer-robert-ballard-find-wrecks-and-strange-life-forms-in-the-darkest-parts-of-the-ocean/ https://jacahuesca.com/memoirs-of-explorer-robert-ballard-find-wrecks-and-strange-life-forms-in-the-darkest-parts-of-the-ocean/#respond Tue, 22 Jun 2021 13:09:31 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/memoirs-of-explorer-robert-ballard-find-wrecks-and-strange-life-forms-in-the-darkest-parts-of-the-ocean/

(The Conversation is an independent, nonprofit source of information, analysis, and commentary from academic experts.)

(THE CONVERSATION) Who doesn’t love a good story, especially one about amazing discoveries on the far reaches of Earth? Oceanographer, Navy veteran and explorer Robert D. Ballard wrote a memoir, “Into the Deep”, which recounts several of his dramatic discoveries, including the location of the wreck of the luxury liner Titanic in 1985.

Ballard, now 79, is known to design and use many types of vehicles for underwater exploration. His most important scientific contributions include the mapping of regions of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, an undersea mountain range that crosses the Atlantic Ocean from north to south, and the location of hydrothermal vents in the eastern Pacific. These underwater hot springs form at cracks in the oceanic crust, where superheated water gushes out from the Earth’s interior. Their discovery changed scientists’ thinking about the evolution of life on Earth and the chemistry of the ocean.

I am a geoscientist who studies the oceans and climate of Earth and I first met Ballard while working at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 1978. I am keenly aware of his contributions to ocean science, as well as of his work to popularize ocean exploration and inspire people to become scientists. “Into the Deep” captures a lot of what it’s like to do this job, including less glamorous aspects like fundraising, building research teams, and watching on deck for hours on end. Science, especially marine research, is not a lonely endeavor – and the discovery of hydrothermal vents is a prime example.

Mapping the seabed

In the early 1970s, when Ballard was doing his graduate studies in marine geology and geophysics, scientists were further refining the foundations of plate tectonics theory. A key idea was that a new oceanic crust was created at the seabed centers of propagation, where the oceanic plates moved away from each other and magma from the Earth’s interior sprang up between them.

A 1972 study of a center of spread in the eastern Pacific near the Galapagos Islands observed that the water temperature was slightly warmer near parts of the center of spread – a surprising find at depths of 8 000 to 9000 feet (2440 to 2750 meters) – but cools rapidly as one moves away from the site. This suggests that hydrothermal vents could be present.

In 1974, Ballard participated in the FAMOUS project, which used the manned American submersible Alvin and a French submersible to explore the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The researchers descended 8,000 feet into deep rift valleys at the bottom of the ocean and ascended into the adjacent rift mountains to depths of around 3,300 feet (1,000 meters). The fresh basalt suggested recent volcanic activity and the creation of a new oceanic crust, but their study did not locate any hydrothermal vents.

Meanwhile, other researchers were exploring the center of the Galapagos spread. In 1976, Kathleen Crane, a graduate student at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, studied marine heat fluxes in this region for her doctoral research. To do so, she sailed an elaborate deep-sea exploration machine, Deep Tow, which was pulled behind a research vessel near the ocean floor and transmitted data to the ship.

Crane’s measurements identified hot springs. The photographs showed clam shells nearby. She dropped acoustic transponders marking the site she called “Clambake” for future research.

A year later, scientists returned to the area with Alvin and another deep-towed vehicle, ANGUS, which could move closer to the ocean floor, providing better photographs and thermal measurements. Ballard and Crane were both on this expedition, along with other researchers from Oregon State University, MIT, Stanford, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and Scripps.

The new photographs allowed scientists to locate the most important dive sites. They did 24 dives at Alvin. At hot spots, they were stunned to find dense clusters of seashells, anemones, crabs, tube worms and other organisms around the vents on the ocean floor where warm water rose from below . Analysis showed that these organisms performed chemosynthesis – creating energy from chemicals in seawater, in complete darkness.

Disappointingly, all Ballard says in “Into the Deep” about Crane’s role in this discovery is that Scripps researchers scanned the area in 1976 using Deep Tow and “detected some anomalies. subtle temperature “. In the race to credit important scientific discoveries, it can be difficult, if not impossible, to clearly identify who made the discovery. In a collective effort, who should we recognize?

Crane, whom I have known since 1978, was listed as a co-author of the 1979 article in the journal Science which described hydrothermal vents, and pursued a distinguished career in the study of the oceans and the Arctic. But his role in this discovery received relatively little credit in popular accounts. In my opinion, Ballard’s memoir would have been the perfect opportunity to recognize his contribution to one of the most important oceanographic discoveries of the 20th century.

Find the lost ships

Ballard received much wider praise when he led the expedition that found the RMS Titanic in 1985. This trip was funded by the US Navy – not out of interest in the Titanic, but as a supplement to studies. secrets of the wreckage of two nuclear reactors. -motorized attack submarines, the USS Scorpion and the USS Thresher, which sank in the 1960s.

On September 1, 1985, Ballard and his team took the first photos of the remains of the Titanic, 2.4 miles (3.8 kilometers) below the surface of the Atlantic Ocean and nearly 400 miles (600 kilometers) to the south -south-eastern Newfoundland. They found the wreckage using Argo, a new deep-towed sonar and video camera system, to search back and forth over a 100 square mile area of ​​the seabed. Oceanographers call this process ‘mowing the lawn’, hoping and praying that something new will be revealed.


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Almost all of California’s giant sequoias are in areas of “exceptional drought” https://jacahuesca.com/almost-all-of-californias-giant-sequoias-are-in-areas-of-exceptional-drought/ https://jacahuesca.com/almost-all-of-californias-giant-sequoias-are-in-areas-of-exceptional-drought/#respond Mon, 21 Jun 2021 17:46:45 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/almost-all-of-californias-giant-sequoias-are-in-areas-of-exceptional-drought/

As the drought in California worsens, more than 93% of all known giant sequoias currently exist in areas experiencing “exceptional drought” conditions – the most severe drought classification established by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA).

Giant sequoias are among the oldest organisms on earth, frequently peaking at over 250 feet tall and boasting a trunk diameter as wide as 26 feet. But although it is one of the oldest flora on the planet – some of the oldest known examples of the species are well over 3,000 years old according to dendrochronology – human activity and climate change threatens their continued existence. And now, with the worsening drought conditions on the West Coast, virtually all massive trees are now rooted in an area subject to exceptional drought conditions, leaving them exposed to damage from wildfires.

A map recently published by the Save the Redwood League (aka the “League”) – an SF-based nonprofit that is one of the nation’s oldest conservation organizations, responsible for the protection and restoration of redwood forests since 1918 – shows how point the situation is serious at the moment. In addition: More than half of all coastal redwood ranges exist under exceptionally drought or “extreme drought” conditions.

“These are potentially dangerous and dry conditions for these iconic forests,” the association’s press release read. “The biggest threat to these forests is the abnormal overgrowth of vegetation due to decades of fire suppression. “

Although forest fires are an essential part of a forest’s life cycle, the speed at which they have occurred in recent years is far from natural. The National Park Service estimates that between 10% and 14.5% of the world’s giant sequoias have died from the Fire at the SQF 2020 Complex in the Sierra Nevada – with the drought conditions this year much worse than those observed last year.

To illustrate the severity of this emergency, the League overlaid the known range of giant sequoias on the drought maps provided by the United States Drought Monitor, illustrating the potential fire dangers faced by these centuries-old trees.

According to the release, 44,799 acres of giant sequoia are currently falling under exceptional drought conditions, while the remaining known acres – about 3,093 – exist under extreme drought conditions.

The state’s redwood groves aren’t doing much better either. Over 2.3 million acres of coastal redwoods are now in exceptional or extreme drought conditions, and an additional 1.9 million acres in “severe drought” or “moderate drought” conditions. As it stands, a whopping 0% of all coastal redwoods are rooted in areas with “unusually dry” conditions – the least severe level of drought described by the US Drought Monitor.

What can you do to help protect these groves from the possibility of turning to ash as the fire season progresses? The League recommends sending an email to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which oversees the United States Forest Service, call for immediate action to protect giant sequoias; those who have the financial means to do so are also encouraged to donate to nonprofits that already help restore and protect endangered tree species – like the League, as well as the Sempervirens Fund and Redwoods Park Conservatory.

Now is not a bad time to see how you can reduce your water intake as well.

Related: SF Nonprofit spends $ 24.7 million on easements to permanently protect a strip of redwoods near Mendocino

Sunday wildfires in Big Basin Redwoods State Park kick off another potentially horrific fire season

Image: The Stagg tree is the fifth largest known tree in the world. (Photo by Max Forster, Save the Redwoods League)


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Shipping industry calls for action on IMRB fund – ShipInsight https://jacahuesca.com/shipping-industry-calls-for-action-on-imrb-fund-shipinsight/ https://jacahuesca.com/shipping-industry-calls-for-action-on-imrb-fund-shipinsight/#respond Mon, 21 Jun 2021 06:10:20 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/shipping-industry-calls-for-action-on-imrb-fund-shipinsight/

The shipping industry has welcomed the growing momentum for a $ 5 billion R&D fund for shipping, but calls on governments to act on their climate commitments and not waste more time moving forward. ‘forward with decisive actions to support the decarbonization of industry.

At the recent UN IMO meeting (MEPC 76), delegates agreed to continue work on the $ 5 billion IMO-supervised R&D fund program, which will be led by a new International Maritime Research and Development Council (IMRB), with many countries pledging to support the proposal. However, in a joint statement, several bodies said “it is disappointing that once again we have to wait until the next meeting before we can start”.

The R&D program is designed to accelerate the development and introduction of zero-emission technologies and fuels for maritime transport, which are essential to enable the industry to become carbon-free. “The R&D fund has grown considerably over the past three years. It is the only concrete proposal on the table and can be accepted and implemented by 2023. Governments rightly call for innovation and decarbonization now. It is now, and we need IMO member states to step forward and allow us to accelerate the necessary R&D without further delay, ”said industry organizations.

The IMO has set targets to reduce total emissions from maritime transport by at least 50% by 2050, with the US and EU now calling for emission-free transport in the 30 coming years. To be successful, the industry needs zero carbon ships capable of transoceanic voyages, available by 2030. However, technologies to operate offshore vessels on zero carbon fuels are not yet available and current R&D efforts are not sufficient.

“We urgently need to expand and accelerate R&D around zero carbon technologies and fuels. But innovation is not free. To catalyze innovation, the industry is poised to provide guaranteed funding of $ 5 billion at no cost to governments, giving all nations equitable access to the works and technologies that the fund advances. So what are we waiting for? ”Said the shipowners’ organizations.

The organizations said it was encouraging to see support for the R&D program from additional countries. Increased commitment is now necessary for concrete regulatory and technological progress. UN IMO Secretary General Kitack Lim has made it clear: “Failure is not an option.” The whole world is watching, and they will be watching MEPC 77 and COP26 even more closely.

“The R&D fund proposal is mature and ready for approval, and the industry is already committed to doing the necessary work to establish the fund, a payment system and the necessary funding. We can do it now, and for the sake of our climate and future generations, we must. We urge governments to endorse the proposed amendments to MARPOL Annex 6 to MEPC 77 in November, as the first concrete step towards making the IMRB a necessary reality to reduce GHG emissions from maritime transport ”, states the press release.

The international shipowners’ associations supporting this proposal, which collectively represent all sectors and trades and more than 90% of the global merchant fleet, are:

  • BIMCO
  • INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CRUISE LINES
  • INTERCARGO
  • INTERFERT
  • INTERNATIONAL SHIPPING CHAMBER
  • INTERTANKO
  • INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PARCEL CARRIERS
  • WORLD NAVIGATION COUNCIL

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Dry, Drier, Drier – The Durango Herald https://jacahuesca.com/dry-drier-drier-the-durango-herald/ https://jacahuesca.com/dry-drier-drier-the-durango-herald/#respond Sat, 19 Jun 2021 11:06:00 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/dry-drier-drier-the-durango-herald/

First of all, let’s stop calling it a drought. A drought involves a temporary situation that will eventually subside as the weather changes.

The term “desertification” comes closest to the description of the process underway in the southwest today. It is a type of land degradation in which fertile land loses its biological productivity and becomes a desert. The Southwest is one of the fastest warming regions in the United States. Just as Florida at lower elevations has more to lose from rising sea levels than other states, the Southwest has more to lose from above-average temperatures and shortages of water. water. We are stuck in the most extensive and intense “drought”, with long-term forecasts calling for an escalation of the situation. Climate change is the main cause, raising temperatures and increasing the loss of water to the atmosphere.

In the early stages of a traditional drought, the planting of crops is postponed, germination is delayed, producers begin to feed their livestock supplementally, hay cutting is reduced, and grass fires multiply. As dry conditions worsen, row and forage crops fail, the first sales of livestock begin, dust storms occur and the frequency of forest fires increases. As exceptional and widespread drought conditions prevail, rangelands dry up, plantations halt, and the seafood, forestry, tourism and agriculture sectors suffer significant financial losses. The danger of forest fires is serious during this stage.

Seems familiar? The National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration reports that “Drought is the second most common type of billion dollar weather disaster in the past three decades, overtaken only by tropical storms / hurricanes.”

In addition to destroying our environment, droughts also affect the physical and emotional health and safety of people. As water shortages decrease our river flows and reservoir levels, the levels of depression and anxiety about our economic losses increase. The conditions are ripe for conflict. There are higher incidences of heat stroke and even loss of life in severe droughts.

Drought response and mitigation efforts vary from state to state, as do water laws. No federal agency is in charge of water or drought policy. NOAA says: “Due to a drought, government agencies at all levels as well as private sector companies may be forced to make unprecedented and sometimes controversial decisions regarding water discharges, the distribution of funds and others. disaster and household water use rules.

None of these efforts address the root cause of an ever-warming climate – essentially, we’re putting bandages on a spouting arterial wound. Only by addressing the root cause – climate change – by lowering heat-trapping carbon in the atmosphere can we prevent desertification in the Southwest. Our country is finally acting. President Joe Biden has pledged to halve U.S. emissions by 2030, and carbon pricing is the least painful way to get there.

Adding a price on carbon pollution creates a national economic strategy that will spur competitive markets to produce the most efficient and environmentally friendly solutions. It works by imposing a fee on carbon pollution, and returns those fees to American households in the form of a monthly dividend check, like a tax return. Instead of regulatory measures, market-based mechanisms like carbon pricing are needed to ensure reliability and competitiveness in the market.

The recent International Energy Agency report, ‘Net Zero by 2050,’ states, ‘The world has a viable path to build a global energy sector with net zero emissions by 2050, but it is narrow and requires an unprecedented transformation in the way energy is produced, transported and used around the world. This plan relies heavily on carbon pricing to ensure it is people-centered and inclusive, and ensures affordable energy for all.

A carbon pricing bill currently in Congress, the Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividend Act (HR2307), would match the carbon price suggested by the IEA. Read it for yourself and share your thoughts with Congress.

Let’s stop treating the symptoms of this disease and start curing the disease itself.

Susan Atkinson is a longtime Durango resident and a member of the Durango chapter of the Citizens’ Climate Lobby, committed to the passage of effective national climate legislation.


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grassroots group seeks collaborative solutions for climate adaptation | Castine Patriote https://jacahuesca.com/grassroots-group-seeks-collaborative-solutions-for-climate-adaptation-castine-patriote/ https://jacahuesca.com/grassroots-group-seeks-collaborative-solutions-for-climate-adaptation-castine-patriote/#respond Fri, 18 Jun 2021 16:43:01 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/grassroots-group-seeks-collaborative-solutions-for-climate-adaptation-castine-patriote/

by Clark Tate

If you’ve noticed milder winters, warmer waters, and a peak in sweltering summer days, you’re not alone. “Many, many people, hundreds of people, have told us that they have noticed during their lifetimes that Maine is getting warmer,” said Dr. Cassaundra Rose of the Governor’s Office for Policy and Innovation Innovation. to come up. “Climate change is already a reality for Maine.”

A newly formed Blue Hill Peninsula planning group is working on what to do about this. Members include Allen Kratz of Brooksville, Randy Curtis and Jeff Milliken of Blue Hill, Bailey Bowden of Penobscot and Jim Fisher of Deer Isle. The grassroots group hosted a Zoom meeting on June 4, attended by members of the public, community leaders and, most notably, Maine District 133 representative Sarah Pebworth. The stated aim was to “combine usable information and possibilities for action”.

The meeting started with some background information on the fire hose mode, with Dr Susie Arnold, Marine Scientist at the Island Institute, and Rose, Senior Science Analyst and Climate Control Coordinator, discussing the state of the climate science.

Temperatures and sea level rise

Air temperatures in Maine are 3.2 degrees higher than they were in 1895. They could rise an additional two to four degrees by 2050, and up to 10 by 2100, according to Maine Climate Council of Climate Change and Its Effects in Maine scientific assessment published. in 2020. The Council’s interactive climate dashboard shows ocean surface temperatures 3.8 degrees warmer than historical averages. In a worst-case emissions scenario, they could climb to 55 degrees by 2050, temperatures found today in southern New England, according to the Maine State Climate Office. CMIP5 model predictions, with data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

This is not good news for Maine’s fishing industry, valued at nearly $ 673 million in 2019 and $ 517 million in 2020, according to the Department of Marine Resources. Lobsters, which accounted for over 70% of those profits in 2019 and nearly 80% in 2020, moved north and into deeper waters offshore to escape the heat. Eventually, Arnold said, this will bring them to Canada, forcing the fishery to adapt. (Conversely, fish such as menhaden and black bass may become more abundant.) Acidity is also not good for shellfish, and the oceans are now 30% more acidic than historical records, most of it decline that has occurred over the past 70 years. years, according to the scientific assessment of the Climate Council.

The sea level rises. Storm surges and high tides will infiltrate further inland. No one knows how much it will get worse, but the Climate Council’s most likely projections range from an increase of 1.1 to 1.8 feet by 2050 and 3 to 4.6 feet by 2050. 2100. High Council estimates put sea level rise at 3 feet in the next 30 years and 8.8 feet in the next 80; its scientific assessment notes that annual precipitation in Maine has increased by more than 6 inches (largely due to the wet years from 2005 to 2014) and that severe storms are more frequent.

The costs of doing nothing are high, explained Rose, summarizing the findings of last year’s joint Eastern Research Group and state report. By 2050, the State GDP can fall by more than $ 118 million from forecasts of medium-term sea level rise alone, and hospital visits and heat-related emergencies on sweltering summer days could cost 2 to 3 million dollars per year. Then there are the lobsters that will walk slowly north, the seashells that will suffer, and the houses, roads, bridges and causeways that will be inundated.

Solutions look to emissions, resilience

After Arnold and Rose outlined the challenges Maine faces as a result of climate change, other speakers turned to solutions, including working to reduce emissions and build the resilience of infrastructure, natural systems, and landscapes. communities.

Joyce Taylor, chief engineer at the Maine Department of Transportation, led the conversation on reducing carbon emissions, as transportation accounts for 54% of the state’s emissions. According to Taylor, electric vehicles are the key to reducing them. “It’s unrealistic to think, in a rural state like Maine, that you’re really going to have a lot less vehicle miles,” she says. MDOT is also reorganizing the GO MAINE Carpooling program for a relaunch in 2022.

Resilience projects range from raising roads and bridges to widening culverts and creating living shorelines. They also include acquisition and demolition projects, where government funds buy dangerous properties, such as houses, and then demolish buildings to create open space.

Three presenters provided a wealth of information on the planning and financing of the project. Martha Sheils noted that donors like to support regional collaborations and large-scale climate resilience projects. She works for the New England Environmental Finance Center, which provides training and technical assistance to communities.

Nathan Robbins, Department of Environmental Protection, reviewed a long list of DEP grants and loans. He also said that building resilience is a cyclical process and shared a useful community action framework. Anne Fuchs, Maine Emergency Management Agency, spoke about Building Resilient Infrastructure and Communities from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (BRIC) financing. She said that BRIC the grants go to profitable projects that help a lot of people for a minimum amount of money. Fuchs sees this as a challenge in rural Maine.

In the discussion that followed the presentations, Arnold and Rose explained that the state is committed to managing sea level rise estimates of 1.5 feet by 2050 and 3.9 feet by 2100 and will consider preparing for the worst-case estimates of 3 feet by 2050 and 8.8 feet by 2100. It’s hard to say what this means in the real world.

When Taylor brought up a plan to raise a local 4-foot bridge, Blue Hill’s Scott Miller leaned into it. “The new bridges are 100 year old assets,” he said. “You know, we’re actually told to plan 9 feet over the next 80 years, but the state itself decided 4 feet was enough.” He respectfully asked for clarification, later saying: “What should cities get out of this in terms of their own infrastructure investments? “

Taylor, Rose and Arnold have confirmed that the plan is in line with state recommendations. Taylor then spoke about the complexity behind these decisions. Currently, MDOT removing the necessary infrastructure in Maine because they don’t have the funds to maintain it. They don’t want to spend the money to build a working bridge that might never get flooded. But, better information may be on the way.

“There’s a conversation with the state agency in two weeks about going out and getting a sea level rise flood model, and our goal would be to be able to share it with the cities, so we all speak the same language, ”Taylor said. , although she doesn’t know if they will be able to afford it.

Taylor is also concerned about whether communities will still be at the end of a road when the project is finished. “I could build a 9-foot road that doesn’t fit anyone,” she said. “Are people going to retreat?” “

“We were asked NOAA a few times to go to 8 feet, ”Taylor explained. In one case, the construction of such a high bridge would have destroyed six historic buildings. “You can’t have it all when you start talking about coping,” she said. “And I don’t think we’ve had enough of this conversation about tough tradeoffs.”

Discussion moderator Kendra Jo Grindle, Island Institute, responded: “I think today’s hope is to start some of these tough conversations for the Blue Hill Peninsula region and pursue them with a more collaborative regional group.

To view the presentations, visit tinyurl.com/BlueHillPenCC.


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How underground microbes devour carbon emissions https://jacahuesca.com/how-underground-microbes-devour-carbon-emissions/ https://jacahuesca.com/how-underground-microbes-devour-carbon-emissions/#respond Thu, 17 Jun 2021 20:00:00 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/how-underground-microbes-devour-carbon-emissions/

To combat climate change, researchers are looking for ways to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it forever. Crazy ideas range from planting more trees (Earth’s natural carbon sponges) to industrial machine scrubbers. Today, organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye are increasingly present.

Researchers at Pellissippi State Community College have found that microbes buried deep in the earth’s crust help to devour CO2. For example, they discovered that the small but powerful bacteria found in Costa Rica’s hot springs are natural carbon sinks.

Credit: Katie Pratt and the Deep Carbon Observatory

The backstory: There is a carbon cycle deep within the Earth. Driven by the shifting plates of oceanic crust, the natural process unfolds over hundreds of millions of years. Sinking oceanic plates bury carbon deep below the Earth’s surface for long-term storage. Some ascend through erupting volcanoes, while much remains buried – a fact that remains a mystery to scientists, reports Science.

Then, in 2017, scientists started to understand what is happening to this deep carbon. By studying the naturally occurring gases and liquids that escape from more than 20 hot springs in Costa Rica, they discovered that some of the sinking carbon is transformed into rocky. But that did not take into account all the CO2 that had disappeared.

“Is there any evidence that the microbes in these hot springs are affecting the greenhouse gases that come out of them?”

Katherine fullerton

So recently, the same team returned to the crime scene to solve the mystery of what happened to the missing carbon.

What happened : The same team, this time co-led by Katherine Fullerton, a microbiologist at Pellissippi State Community College, returned to the hot springs to analyze the water.

“Our first goal was to try to determine how microbial diversity varies regionally, as previous research tended to focus on one location at a time,” Fullerton said. mentionned in a report. “Second: is there any evidence that the microbes in these hot springs are affecting the greenhouse gases that come out of them? ”

The team found signs of chemical reactions facilitated by living organisms. They determined that communities of microbes must feed on natural carbon from the descending oceanic crust. To confirm their suspicions, the team discovered several species of bacteria with the genes needed to turn CO2 into organic carbon.

What this means for climate change: Using data from hot springs, the team built a computer model that suggests that these microorganisms eat between 2 and 22% of the natural carbon emitted by hot springs, they reported in natural geosciences.

“The little things add up”, Fullerton Told Science.

Oliver Plümper, an expert at Utrecht University in rock-fluid interactions who was not involved in the study, told Science that while 2% is not impressive, 22% is enough to answer questions about the relationship between the Earth’s interior and climate.

Calling this “very exciting,” Plümper adds that these calculations could influence our understanding of long-term climate stability – and how long the planet will support life.

We would love to hear from you! If you have a comment on this article or have a tip for a future Freethink story, please email us at [email protected]


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GH Commercial sets the tone with the participation of Take 3 for the Sea https://jacahuesca.com/gh-commercial-sets-the-tone-with-the-participation-of-take-3-for-the-sea/ https://jacahuesca.com/gh-commercial-sets-the-tone-with-the-participation-of-take-3-for-the-sea/#respond Wed, 16 Jun 2021 21:35:56 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/gh-commercial-sets-the-tone-with-the-participation-of-take-3-for-the-sea/

GH Commercial marked the launch of its premium Oceanic collection by participating in a Take 3 for the Sea beach cleaning campaign.

Take 3 for the Sea is a global organization that promotes the simple activism of removing three garbage from our beaches, waterways and green spaces to help clean up our oceans. Their education programs have inspired a global movement of people invested in a healthier planet.

The opportunity to join the conversation arose in late January, when Victorian GH’s Marketing, Sales and Business Administration team participated in a Take 3 for the Sea event at St Kilda Beach. During an official welcome and safety briefing, the team learned that more than 8 million tonnes of new plastic enter our waterways each year, killing wildlife that mistakenly ingest it as a source of food and upsetting the vital balance of our ocean ecosystems.

Made primarily from finished fossil fuels, plastics do not break down, but rather break down into smaller and smaller pieces to create microplastics and nanoplastics. The creation and breakdown of these plastics release harmful greenhouse gases, contributing to climate change and threatening the health of our planet.

It is predicted that if we continue on our current path of making and disposing of single-use plastics, by 2050 there will be more plastic pollution in the ocean than fish. Motivated by this sobering statistic and observing COVID security protocols, GH’s intrepid business team ventured out – gloves, tongs, buckets ready.

Although the council scoured the beach after the holiday, within an hour the crew managed to collect 2,452 assorted trash, 84% of which was derived from plastic and 46% was cigarette butts and acetate filters from cellulose – a staggering number of 1,157 cigarettes. !

GH Commercial staff, passionate about sustainability issues, appreciated the event’s focus on measures to reduce plastic pollution and waste that we can integrate into our own lives and workplaces. . We felt truly privileged to be a part of such an important community initiative and were delighted to do our little bit to help.

Going forward, GH Commercial will make an annual donation to Take 3 for the Sea from proceeds from the Oceanic Collection, contributing to the continued cleanup of the oceans and the promotion of education programs for schools and local communities.

The striking and versatile Oceanic collection draws its inspiration from the Tasman and Coral Seas, incorporating biophilic design principles that visually represent the myriad elements of marine life, including the magical Great Barrier Reef. Browse the Oceanic Collection for a full range of creative flooring solutions.


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Climate change is making Athens hotter https://jacahuesca.com/climate-change-is-making-athens-hotter/ https://jacahuesca.com/climate-change-is-making-athens-hotter/#respond Wed, 16 Jun 2021 04:04:23 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/climate-change-is-making-athens-hotter/

The weather normals are out, and it’s no surprise that Athens is warming up. What’s surprising is the acceleration – how quickly the city and state are heating up.

Every 10 years, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration recalculates a new set of these normals for nation, state, and individual weather stations across the United States, including the official Athens recording station at the Athens Ben-Epps Airport. Normals are a 30-year average – from 1991 to 2020 in the latest round of 2020 – of measurements such as daily maximum, minimum, and overall average temperatures by day, month, and year. The normals also include the averages for rain and snow.

Now, the “normal” average annual temperature in Athens is 62.6 degrees, according to a database built by the High Plains Regional Climate Center at the University of Nebraska. This is almost a degree warmer than the 2010 normal in Athens and 1.4 degrees warmer than the 1990 normal.

After rising sharply during the first decades of the 20th century, average temperatures actually declined in Athens, Georgia, and the United States in the mid-20th century. We do not know why. The trough was once thought to be the effect of mid-century reforestation, as millions of acres of depleted farmland and exploited mountainsides and swamps regenerated as best they could. Calculations do not support this theory, however, according to University of Georgia engineering professor David Stooksbury, the former Georgia state climatologist.

Since that brief cooling, however, temperatures have risen at an accelerating rate in Athens, as in the rest of the world. The mean normal temperature for 2000 (years 1971-2000) was 0.3 degrees higher than the 1990 normal. In 2010, the normal increased another 0.3 degrees to 61.8, according to the database. Nebraska. The latest 30-year normal once again pushes the annual mean almost a full degree to 62.6, and most of that increase has only occurred in the last decade. The average annual temperature in Athens rose slightly by 0.1 degrees in the 1990s, jumped a further 0.6 degrees in the 2000s, and then climbed 1.4 degrees to 63.7 in the 2010s. thermometer at the airport topped 90 for a record 54 consecutive days in 2016, the hottest year on record for Athens.

Climatologists are also seeing an alarming acceleration in other measures of induced climate change, such as the constant shrinking of the Arctic sea ice. The pace of climate change that’s happening now looks a lot like what climate change scientists projected as the worst-case scenarios not too long ago. “It’s like that,” said Pam Knox, UGA agricultural climatologist, when asked if climate change is accelerating.

Athens is far from the only one experiencing a rapid rise in temperatures. “In Florida, the last decade just hit the charts,” Knox said.

Atlanta and other cities in Georgia are also getting warmer, in similar patterns to Athens. Atlanta’s new normal average temperature is now 63.7 degrees, up 1.8 degrees from 1990 normal. The 2010s in Hotlanta were 2.6 degrees warmer than the 1990 normal average.

Savannah, which also faces accelerating sea level rise due to global warming, has been 2.7 degrees warmer in the past decade than 1990 normal, according to base figures High Plains data. Models predict that sea level will rise 10 feet or more, even if carbon emissions stop immediately. The scientific debate is now more about whether this will happen in the next decades or in the next two centuries.

In Athens and other cities, winter temperatures have changed the most. The normal January temperature in Athens is now 2.7 degrees warmer than in 1990, and February is up 2.5 degrees. Over the past decade, Athens has averaged 49.1 degrees in December, almost 5 degrees higher than the December 1990 normal.

It’s not just the numbers that are changing now, but the very meaning of climate normals, said Knox, a former Wisconsin state climatologist and deputy state climatologist in Georgia. “The normals were designed in the hope that the climate would be stable,” she said. But with the rapid increase in warming, these normals are no longer the reliable tool they were for farmers and others when the first norms were released in 1931.

The average precipitation of Athens changed only slightly in the news normal; 48.95 inches per year, up from the 2010 normal of 46.33 inches. In recent decades, precipitation has increased significantly in the northeast and decreased sharply in the west, but averaged about the same in the southeast. But there is growing evidence that precipitation patterns, if not the averages, change as people pump more carbon into the atmosphere, Stooksbury said. The rain comes in more intense gusts, with longer dry spells in between, like last month in Athens. Athens received 3.86 inches of rain over four days in early May, followed by 15 days with no rain at all. Georgia and the Southeast also tend to be drier in the fall, according to NOAA statistics.

Meanwhile, the rising temperature trend continues. So far this year, Athens has been almost 2 degrees above normal, which is 2 degrees above the new normal.


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