Oceanic climate – Jaca Huesca http://jacahuesca.com/ Fri, 30 Apr 2021 01:51:30 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.7.1 https://jacahuesca.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/cropped-icon-32x32.png Oceanic climate – Jaca Huesca http://jacahuesca.com/ 32 32 What is blue carbon? Definition and importance https://jacahuesca.com/what-is-blue-carbon-definition-and-importance/ https://jacahuesca.com/what-is-blue-carbon-definition-and-importance/#respond Fri, 30 Apr 2021 01:12:33 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/what-is-blue-carbon-definition-and-importance/

“Blue carbon” refers to the large amounts of carbon dioxide that the Earth’s oceans absorb from the atmosphere. The name first appeared in the 1990s when scientists realized the importance of marine vegetation as important carbon sinks. In addition to forests, which store ‘green carbon’, coastal ecosystems such as mangroves, salt marshes, peatlands, kelp beds and seagrass play a valuable role in the race to eliminate greenhouse gases. greenhouse that cause climate change in the air. Yet like many of our terrestrial forests, we lose these ecosystems to human encroachment, and when we do, these natural carbon sinks release huge amounts of carbon instead, exacerbating our environmental challenges. Three quarters of the world’s countries have at least one blue carbon ecosystem, and efforts are underway in many of them to protect these vital wetlands in the fight against climate change. You can also help.

What are carbon sinks?

A carbon sink is any natural system that absorbs more carbon from the atmosphere than it releases and holds it for long periods of time.

How exactly is blue carbon stored?

Through photosynthesis, marine plants and algae extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere throughout their growth cycle. When they die, organic matter precipitates to the bottom of the ocean and becomes embedded in the soil, where it can remain intact for millennia. More than two-thirds of the carbon on Earth circulates in the ocean, and the oceans absorb about 25% of the world’s annual carbon dioxide emissions. While coastal ecosystems constitute less than 2% of the total surface of the oceans, they represent “about half of the total carbon sequestered in ocean sediments”. These environments store more carbon per area than terrestrial forests and at a rate three to five times faster – the equivalent of one billion barrels of oil per year.

Moist soils retain more carbon because they have low oxygen levels, which slows the rate of decomposition. This is also why carbon trapped in coastal soils can remain there for thousands of years. In the United States, there are some 41 million acres of coastal wetlands, mostly in the southeast. Each year, they store about eight million tonnes of carbon, or the equivalent of the emissions of 1.7 million vehicles, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Pioneering blue carbon research was conducted in the 1990s by Dr. Gail Chmura of McGill University, who studied the salt marshes of the Bay of Fundy in Canada. Since then, blue carbon has become the target of research and conservation programs of governments, universities, and coastal reserves, including the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS) in the United States. Today, blue carbon estimates have been incorporated into the greenhouse gas emissions inventory of the United States and other countries.

Why is blue carbon important?

In the 200 years since the American Revolution, more than half of the wetlands in the land area that is now the United States was lost to development, at a rate of more than 60 acres lost per hour . Since then, that rate has only accelerated: between 2004 and 2009, the United States lost an average of more than 80,000 acres of coastal wetlands per year. With every acre lost, our ability to fight climate change grows stronger. Not only are there fewer wetlands to absorb carbon, but when wetlands are destroyed, the carbon they have long sequestered is released into the atmosphere. When peatlands dry out, for example, their dead vegetation decomposes faster and releases greenhouse gases. And when mangrove forests are destroyed, at the rate of 2% per year, they release about 10% of all emissions from deforestation.

In total, the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere each year as a result of the destruction of coastal ecosystems is estimated at 1.02 billion tonnes, which is almost equal to Japan’s annual carbon dioxide emissions. This is why, despite the fact that coastal ecosystems cover such a small percentage of the ocean’s area, on a per acre basis, their protection “can provide one of the greatest climate benefits over forest or land. to other land use projects ”. If the annual loss of coastal wetlands could be halved, the equivalent of Spain’s annual emissions could be reduced.

Protecting coastal ecosystems also protects the lives and livelihoods of millions of people by improving water quality and creating jobs in fishing, tourism and recreation. Alaska’s peatlands, for example, absorb heat and produce food for endangered salmon stocks. Wetlands provide temporary habitat for birds along the Atlantic and Pacific flyways and permanent habitats for endangered species like the Florida panther and Louisiana black bear. Wetlands prevent erosion and flooding, and as sea levels rise, through accretion (accumulation) of soil, they can store even more carbon.

How to protect coastal ecosystems

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is, of course, the main objective of reducing the threat of climate change. But even if emissions were to drop to zero, it will still be necessary to remove carbon from the atmosphere. Until recently, most nature-based carbon sequestration efforts have focused on reforestation, forest preservation, and other land-based solutions. But blue carbon is increasingly at the center of research and conservation activities, and there are many things that citizens can do too.

Conservation efforts

  • Protecting coastal ecosystems is one of the most effective (and cost effective) ways to sequester carbon. According to one estimate, carbon emissions from mangrove forests can be reduced at a cost of less than $ 10 per tonne of carbon dioxide.
  • Among other nature-based solutions, reintroducing beavers to wetlands prevents them from drying out.
  • Restoring the tidal flow reduces the amount of carbon dioxide and methane escaping from wetlands, providing “quick and lasting climate benefits” over the longer lasting benefits of reforestation efforts.
  • Preventing the amount of nitrogen runoff from agriculture and other sources into wetlands reduces the release of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide (another potent greenhouse gas).

Restoring wetlands is key to tackling climate change. Miscellaneous photography / Getty Images.

Carbon markets

  • With the introduction of carbon markets under the Paris Agreement on climate change, wetland restoration can be profitable. By giving restoration projects the ability to sell carbon offsets, carbon markets make these projects less expensive for state and federal budgets.
  • Carbon offsets at a price of $ 10 per tonne would cover the costs of the research necessary to initiate wetland restoration projects and pay for the long-term monitoring of the program.
  • Blue Carbon is now part of the United States Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory, which provides authoritative data on the economic value of coastal restoration projects, allowing these projects to be credited for ’emissions.
  • While carbon credits from wetland projects are currently only part of a voluntary market, including them in a government-regulated “compliance” market would allow them to generate even more revenue by selling offsets.

What are carbon markets?

A carbon market trades carbon emission allowances. Carbon markets aim to encourage businesses and organizations to reduce their carbon emissions by allowing them to sell credits for their emission reductions. Polluters can then offset their greenhouse gas emissions by purchasing emission credits from these organizations.

Research

  • NOAA’s National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS) was established in 2010 to promote the study and monitoring of the coastal ecosystem. Twenty-nine coastal reserves in 24 states and Puerto Rico are conducting and coordinating their research on the role of wetlands as carbon sinks.
  • The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center’s Coastal Carbon Research Coordination Working Group collects data on seagrass habitats.
  • NOAA’s Coastal Change Analysis Program uses satellite imagery to inventory wetlands.
  • Researchers are developing ways to prevent frozen Alaskan peatlands from melting and releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide.

Education

  • NERRS organizes training programs for state and local officials on the role of coastal ecosystems.
  • NERRS member organizations have organized “Roadshow Dialogues” and other public awareness programs to educate community members on the value of coastal wetlands.
  • NERRS also manages Teachers on the estuary workshops, where teachers meet local scientists to learn how to integrate coastal education into their classroom.

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Plastics and toxic chemicals kill fish – and poison us https://jacahuesca.com/plastics-and-toxic-chemicals-kill-fish-and-poison-us/ https://jacahuesca.com/plastics-and-toxic-chemicals-kill-fish-and-poison-us/#respond Tue, 27 Apr 2021 07:10:09 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/plastics-and-toxic-chemicals-kill-fish-and-poison-us/

Plastic, pesticides and other toxic substances are devastating fish and marine animals around the world, according to a report released Tuesday.

the study, which has not been peer reviewed, was published by the International Pollutants Elimination Network (IPEN), a global coalition of environmental organizations. It reviewed academic research conducted around the world on the impacts of plastics and toxic chemicals and is the first systematic review of those scattered studies designed to paint a holistic picture of the problem.

The results were disastrous: pollution compromises the world’s oceans, fisheries and coastal communities while exacerbating the effects of climate change and overfishing.

“Many people think the decline in fish is just the result of overfishing,” said Matt Landos, researcher, aquatic veterinarian and co-author of the report.

“In fact, the entire aquatic food web has been seriously compromised with fewer fish at the top, loss of invertebrates in the sediment and water column, marine algae, corals and other less healthy habitats. , (and) a proliferation of toxic bacteria and algae blooms. Chemical pollution (and) climate change… are the main reason for these losses. ”

Pollution has disrupted aquatic food chains around the world, exacerbating the damaging effects of climate change and overfishing. Diagram by IPEN

About three billion people around the world depend on fish for their protein, especially in less wealthy countries, the report notes. In Canada, oceans, lakes and rivers are culturally and nutritionally vital for many Indigenous communities and support fisheries worth about $ 3.7 billion, according to Statistics Canada.

Yet fish and aquatic animal populations are declining worldwide, despite reduced pressure on wild fish populations. This includes the aquatic animals of rivers and lakes – by the way 83 percent populations of freshwater fish are declining – to the world’s oceans. And the proliferation of plastics and chemicals, along with overfishing, climate change and other stressors, is to blame.

Between 100,000 and 350,000 chemicals are sold today, and only about one percent have been tested for their impact on health and the environment, the report notes. Plastics are also prevalent and around 8.3 billion tonnes have been produced since the 1950s, according to the UN.

Plastic, pesticides and other toxic substances are devastating fish and marine animals around the world, according to a report published Tuesday by @ToxicsFree.

Of particular concern are pesticides, pollutants such as phthalates and per- and polyfluoroalkyls (PFAS), pharmaceuticals and plastics, the report notes.

“Much of the action takes place in the life stages of animals which are largely hidden from the naked eye. (For example) the impacts that we are seeing are quite severe on embryonic life, ”Landos said.

The chemicals poison the immune, endocrine and other key biological systems of aquatic animals, he explained. They can also bioaccumulate throughout the food chain, poisoning major predators like seals, whales and humans.

Plastics have an even wider impact as they are often eaten by fish and other animals, filling their stomachs and leaving them to starve to death. Microplastics also leach toxic chemicals from organisms and the aquatic environment, Landos noted.

The results of the study come as no surprise to the principal investigator of the Ocean Pollution Research Unit at the University of British Columbia, Juan Jose Alava Santos, who did not work on the report.

“Anthropogenic pollution is probably one of the major anthropogenic stressors in the Anthropocene – an era of global change where humans fundamentally reshaped and changed many ecological processes,” he said. “The ocean essentially receives a cocktail of chemicals that end up in the water and also in the sediment.”

With this pollution comes overfishing and climate change to disrupt the ecological balance of oceans, rivers and lakes, he said. Indeed, warmer and more acidic waters can present health threats or risks to the habitat of vulnerable species, while overfishing transforms the predator-prey relationships between different aquatic animals.

“We see that this is some kind of plot between climate change and overfishing (which can) exacerbate environmental pollution,” he said. These impacts can be particularly felt in the world’s pollution hotspots – places like the Arctic, the English Channel and the Salish Sea.

In the Pacific Northwest and the English Channel, years of pesticide use and industrial pollution have left persistent organic pollutants in ocean and riparian sediments. Meanwhile, global air currents carry pollution from temperate and tropical latitudes to the poles, where colder temperatures knock them down from clouds and contaminate distant polar ecosystems, he explained.

Ending the crisis will require a global transformation in the way we use and regulate chemicals and plastics, Landos and Alava Santos agreed. Pollution can come from almost anywhere – from agricultural fields to landfills to factories – and pollution laws have so far failed to end the problem. Ending it will require systemic transformation.

“A lot of these issues come down to how we have designed our economies as linear economies, with the main driver of this linear economy being fossil fuels,” Landos explained.

For example, the oil and gas industry relies on plastics to represent between 45 and 95% of its future growth, according to a 2020 schedule. report by the Carbon Tracker Initiative. Other pollutants, from pesticides to PCBs, also cannot continue to be produced and released into the environment without worsening the crisis, echoed Alava Santos.

“We must move from thinking about maintaining a linear economy to moving to a circular economy which does not continually add more pollution to the biosphere and hope that this will not have an ever more serious effect”, Landos said. “What the data is saying is that there is already a very, very serious effect (on biodiversity) from the pollution that we have already generated.”


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Hotter, stormier, drier: what to look for as meteorologists update ‘normal’ weather for Austin https://jacahuesca.com/hotter-stormier-drier-what-to-look-for-as-meteorologists-update-normal-weather-for-austin/ https://jacahuesca.com/hotter-stormier-drier-what-to-look-for-as-meteorologists-update-normal-weather-for-austin/#respond Tue, 27 Apr 2021 05:08:54 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/hotter-stormier-drier-what-to-look-for-as-meteorologists-update-normal-weather-for-austin/

Lee esta historia in español.

When you hear a meteorologist mention Austin’s high average temperature or precipitation next month, the numbers will be different. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is updating what it considers “normal” across the country.

And NOAA says climate change is evident in the new data.

Government statistics for normal weather conditions – including high and low temperatures and precipitation – are generally taken from a 30-year moving average. This information is updated every 10 years.

Over the past decade, much of what we have been told is normal in Austin has been based on weather data from 1981 to 2010. Next month’s update will remove information from the 1980s and includes most recent decade.

NOAA has yet to release details. But Victor Murphy, program manager for the National Weather Service’s Southern Region Climate Service, said we can expect warmer average temperatures. In Austin, he said, expect an increase in average annual precipitation, but a decrease in the number of rainy days.

It’s getting hot in here

Murphy did not go into details, pending the final release of NOAA data. But he said we can expect average low and high temperatures to rise by about 1/2 to 1 degree Fahrenheit “in Austin and pretty much statewide in Texas.”

Even more striking was the expected change in average annual rainfall in Austin.

“It looks like it actually grew about 2 inches from about 34.2 inches to 36.2,” Murphy said. “But the number of days with measurable precipitation has actually gone down by about maybe one day less per year.”

This increase in average precipitation, but the decrease in the number of rainy days, shows how Austin has seen more severe storms in recent times, but also more dry days. It’s a trend towards extreme weather conditions like droughts and floods that climatologists have been warning about for years.

“It fits perfectly with what we hear about climate change,” Murphy said.

Is Texas Ready?

Using more recent information will help people better understand what to expect from the weather in the near future. But some may fear that the 30-year moving average leaves too much room for climate history, obscuring the severity of climate change over the past century.

A NOAA article on the update rejects this idea. In it, Rebecca Lindsey argues that comparing 30-year averages can be a powerful way to demonstrate how much of the United States has become hotter since record keeping began.

Murphy said the new information will do more than just put the daily weather in perspective.

“Figures like this are really huge when it comes to construction, engineering and things like that,” he said, suggesting that the new data could help guide efforts to improve control. flooding and the Texas power grid.

“Ten years from now, will we have another half-degree to 1-degree rise in temperatures in the future?” he said. “I think it’s pretty clear… it will be and we will have even more demand for electricity, air conditioning, infrastructure.”

This story was produced as part of the Austin MonitorKUT’s reporting partnership.

the Austin MonitorHer work is made possible by donations from the community. While our reports cover donors from time to time, we take care to separate business and editorial activities while maintaining transparency. A full list of donors is available here, and our code of ethics is explained here.

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how satellite observation can help fight climate change – EURACTIV.com https://jacahuesca.com/how-satellite-observation-can-help-fight-climate-change-euractiv-com/ https://jacahuesca.com/how-satellite-observation-can-help-fight-climate-change-euractiv-com/#respond Tue, 27 Apr 2021 05:06:25 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/how-satellite-observation-can-help-fight-climate-change-euractiv-com/

A defining moment in space exploration is the first image of Earthrise – watching Earth pass over the horizon – taken by an astronaut on Apollo 8 as he ventures on his historic journey to circle the moon. .

Since this photo from December 1968, Earth observation has rapidly advanced to the point that satellites orbiting the Earth can monitor forests, methane emissions, glaciers, sea level and many other parts of the climate.

The last decade in particular has been marked by rapid progress, with a massive increase in navigation, telecommunications and, above all, observation technologies. The data provided allows scientists, NGOs and private companies to gain insight into the current state of the Earth and help decision-makers shape climate policy.

Satellite data is vital to tackling the climate challenge, according to Patrick Child, deputy director general of the European Commission’s research and innovation department and co-chair of the Group on Earth Observation, a partnership of more than 100 governments national, university and research institutes.

“Earth observation and our work in space can help us develop effective responses to the impacts of climate change. This is a central objective of the European Green Deal, to ensure that the climate transition is tackled in a holistic way, including through mitigation and adaptation measures, ”said Child. at a conference on climate science from space, hosted by Portugal, which holds the rotating EU presidency for six months.

“Combined with other sources of data, for example on our health or metrological data, we are able to assess the planet and set priorities for our resources and our actions,” he said during the conference organized by the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education, with the support of the European Commission.

The EU has three major programs served by satellites – Galileo, which focuses on navigation; the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) which provides navigation for air, sea and land users; and Copernicus, a network of dedicated satellites collecting data on the atmosphere, land, sea, climate change, security and emergency management.

Most Copernicus data is publicly available and has great potential for both businesses and those helping to fight climate change.

For example, a company called Solcast can provide forecast data to help solar farm operators using data from satellites from the EU and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the US science agency that monitors the climate and weather.

Observations can also help monitor and improve preparedness for natural disasters. “Forest fire monitoring and forest fire risk forecasting are two examples of how spacing-based monitoring contributes to our preparedness and response to climate-related disturbances. The frequency and severity of extreme weather events will only increase, increasing the need for real-time observational data, ”Child said.

Data can also help explain natural disasters. Child brought up the example of flooding in a remote Himalayan region last February, where analysis of Copernicus data found the cause was a landslide, but the main cause was receding permafrost.

A ‘risk data center’ to strengthen the EU’s resilience to climate risks

The European Commission is preparing to launch a ‘risk data center’ in the coming months that will help map loss and damage from natural disasters such as floods, droughts, storms and other extreme weather events which are becoming more and more frequent with climate change.

Combine space and digital technology

Space technology has developed rapidly from those first tentative steps in the mid-20th century that led to the first image of Earthrise. Observation from space can now use digital technology to combat climate change, for example by creating ‘digital twins’ of the Earth to help with adaptation and preparedness.

But it requires hardening data processing, including the creation of advanced algorithms to produce information useful to scientists and private companies, said Massimo Comparini, deputy general manager of Thales Alenia Space, an aerospace manufacturer specializing in the industry. spatial.

“We don’t have a planet B. We have to meet the challenges to build a sustainable planet, and we have to use the best of our technologies available today,” he said.

The last few years have also seen a significant drop in the price of satellites and launch equipment. This means the arrival of smaller and cheaper satellites, which increases the amount of data collected.

But while more data is useful for scientists, there is also growing concern that Earth’s orbit will become congested.

Carla Filotico, managing partner of consulting firm SpaceTec Partners, called for a circular economy in space technologies, including the recovery of materials from disused satellites.

“We have already talked about the new space, the new constellations emerging with thousands and thousands of satellites put into orbit, so there is clearly a need to clean up space,” she added.

Governance and access to data are also issues that still weigh on the sector. Until now, space was considered a public good, but there is now increasing privatization on the ground.

“One of the things we need to be aware of is how to harness the benefits of this low-cost rate of innovation and the ubiquity it offers,” said Azeem Azhar, founder of Exponential View, a newsletter on the future.

This requires a coordinated way of managing space management at the international level, including clearing up the debris that clutters Earth’s orbit.

“We need to have some form of common governance, rather than first-come, first-served governance in a particularly low earth orbit but also further afield,” Azhar said, adding that the privatized side can bring costs down.

[Edited by Frédéric Simon]


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Outsourcing of young adults has an impact on political geography | national news https://jacahuesca.com/outsourcing-of-young-adults-has-an-impact-on-political-geography-national-news/ https://jacahuesca.com/outsourcing-of-young-adults-has-an-impact-on-political-geography-national-news/#respond Tue, 27 Apr 2021 04:00:00 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/outsourcing-of-young-adults-has-an-impact-on-political-geography-national-news/

Garima Vyas always wanted to live in a big city. She thought of New York, long the destination of over 20s, but was wary of the cost and complicated subway lines.

So Vyas chose another metropolis that is increasingly becoming the best option for young people – Houston.

Now 34, Vyas, a technician, has lived in Houston since 2013. “I knew I didn’t like New York, so it was the right thing to do,” Vyas said. “There are a lot of things you want to try. When you’re younger – you want to try new things. Houston gives you that, whether it’s food, people, or dating. And it’s cheap to. live. “

The choices of Vyas and other Millennials of where to live have reshaped the country’s political geography over the past decade. They left New York and California and settled in places less likely to be TV sitcom locations about city dwellers in their twenties, including Denver, Houston and Orlando, Florida. Attracted by jobs and overlooked by cultural amenities, they helped add new craft breweries, condominiums, and liberal voters to these once again conservative places.

Next week, the US Census Bureau is expected to formally account for this change by releasing its tally of population changes during congressional seat reallocation once a decade. The Sun Belt is expected to gain seats at the expense of the northern states.

Most projections predict that Texas will win three seats, Florida two, and Arizona, Colorado, Montana, North Carolina and Oregon one each. Alabama, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, West Virginia and California are expected to lose seats.

Offshoring has reshuffled politics. Once firmly conservative places like Texas have seen the emergence of ever-larger islands of liberalism in their cities, driven by the migration of young, democratically-leaning adults. Since 2010, the population aged 20 to 34 has increased by 24% in San Antonio, 22% in Austin and 19% in Houston, according to an Associated Press analysis of American Community Survey data. In the November election, two states that also saw strong growth in the number of young people in their largest cities – Arizona and Georgia – toppled Democrats in the presidential election.

These demographic winners are almost all in the Sun Belt, but the weather isn’t the only thing they have in common.

“These places are growing not only because they are warmer, but because that is where the jobs are and where the young people are moving there,” said Ryan Wiechelt, professor of geography at the University of Canada. Wisconsin-Eau Claire.

There are other factors of population growth, such as immigration from overseas and childbirth. But as foreign immigration declined over the decade, then plummeted during the pandemic, internal relocations have become an increasingly important factor in how the country is re-sorting itself, demographers say.

Places with jobs have long attracted transplants, but this change has been different because house prices have risen so much in previous employment hubs – Boston, New York and Silicon Valley, for example – that the cost of life has become a bigger factor in offshoring, said Daryl Fairweather, chief economist at Redfin.

“Since the last housing crisis, millennials have had to move to places where labor markets are really strong,” said Fairweather. “Now, during the pandemic, I think that’s about to change – you don’t have to move to San Francisco if you want a job in tech.”

Many young people are still moving to traditional destinations such as New York and California to start careers, experts say. They are now leaving them relatively quickly, with a greater variety of alternative employment centers to choose from. “Every year these places attract a lot of young people, but they lose more,” William Frey, a demographer at the Brookings Institute, said of traditional coastal jobs, joking that his own hometown of Washington, DC, “Hires” young people. .

Instead, places with cheaper housing, growing economies, and recreational amenities have become popular. Colorado was the third most popular place for young adults since 2015, with more than 20,000 new young adults from elsewhere each year, according to Frey’s analysis of early census data. The state has exploded over the past decade as its libertarian lifestyle, outdoor attractions, and growing knowledge-based economy have attracted young people from across the country.

As a result, the Denver skyline is regularly punctuated with construction cranes. Apartment complexes arise from parking lots. For when these tenants want to have children and buy homes, waves of new suburban subdivisions emerge in the shadow of the Front Range of the Rockies.

As most transplant graduates have moved to Denver and its satellite communities, Colorado has grown from a strong Republican state to a competitive hub state to a solid Democratic state. It’s a model that some political experts say could be replicated in other states that import tons of young people, even traditionally conservative Texas.

Sydney Kramer is typical of many newcomers to Colorado. The 23-year-old moved to the college town of Boulder in January to begin graduate studies in atmospheric and ocean sciences. She could have stayed in Miami, a natural place for someone of her interests and where she completed her undergraduate education. But Kramer was depressed by Florida’s anti-science turn under Republican state control.

“Government and politics haven’t necessarily caught up yet,” Kramer said of Florida, noting that state regulations prohibited the use of the term “climate change” in some official documents under the previous governor. “Everyone here has a high level of education, is really aware of climate change.”

“This,” she said of Boulder, with its wealth of environmental and forecasting organizations, “is just a really great place for my industry.”

A native of New Jersey who didn’t want to deal with the high rents in New York City, Kramer was impressed with how her new neighbors spoke enthusiastically about hiking, camping and skiing and combining activities. outdoor and urban amenities offered by the area. “It’s a really wonderful place for whatever you get for the cost of living,” she said.

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OSU professor appointed head of national climate science agency https://jacahuesca.com/osu-professor-appointed-head-of-national-climate-science-agency/ https://jacahuesca.com/osu-professor-appointed-head-of-national-climate-science-agency/#respond Mon, 26 Apr 2021 23:56:00 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/osu-professor-appointed-head-of-national-climate-science-agency/

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A professor at Oregon State University has been appointed by President Joe Biden to head the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), a national agency specializing in weather and climate science.

“I am deeply honored by this appointment,” said Rick Spinrad. “Throughout my years as a graduate student at OSU, I have always held NOAA in such high regard for the quality and importance of its work. The opportunity to serve as a director of NOAA is both humbling and exciting. “

Before receiving the role, Spinrad must be confirmed by the US Senate. If confirmed, Spinrad would become the third person in OSU to lead NOAA, after former OSU President John Byrne who led NOAA from 1981 to 1984 and distinguished OSU professor Jane Lubchenco. who led NOAA from 2009 to 2012.

“He is a leader of thought and determination not only in Oregon, but in America, in terms of addressing the causes of climate change and preserving and promoting the well-being of the world’s oceans,” said OSU spokesman Steve Clark said.

Spinrad graduated from OSU with his masters and doctorate in oceanography, according to the university. He then served as OSU’s vice president of research for four years before stepping down in 2014 to serve as NOAA’s chief scientist, according to the university. Spinrad held this position from 2014 to 2016. He then returned to OSU where he is currently Professor of Oceanography and Senior Advisor to the Vice President, Research.

“Rick Spinrad will be an exceptional director of NOAA,” said Edward Feser, Interim President and Provost and Executive Vice President of OSU. “He is one of an impressive group of professors at Oregon State University who have held senior federal positions – recognition of the university’s academic distinction and commitment to land granting.” His appointment and the past NOAA leadership by John Byrne and Jane Lubchenco are proof of Oregon State University’s global leadership in the study of climate, climate change, the world’s oceans, and marine and coastal resources.

Its current work focuses on funding the PacWave project, a wave energy test site, the university said.

The post has been vacant since 2017 when two of former President Donald Trump’s candidates did not receive enough support from the Senate.

“All Oregonians can be proud of someone in this state and in the past, Jane Lubchenco, OSU Professor Emeritus and former OSU President John Byrne, in helping to lead the progress and preservation of the nation, research and science related to our oceans and coasts, ”said Clark.


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accurate sub-seasonal to seasonal prediction remains a major challenge https://jacahuesca.com/accurate-sub-seasonal-to-seasonal-prediction-remains-a-major-challenge/ https://jacahuesca.com/accurate-sub-seasonal-to-seasonal-prediction-remains-a-major-challenge/#respond Mon, 26 Apr 2021 20:25:00 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/accurate-sub-seasonal-to-seasonal-prediction-remains-a-major-challenge/

Newswise – As an indicator and ‘amplifier’ of global climate change, the health and stability of the Arctic is the cornerstone of the stability of our climate system. It has significant impacts on ecosystems, coastal resilience and human settlements in mid and high latitudes.

The Arctic has experienced amplified warming and a significant decline in sea ice in recent decades. On September 15, 2020, the extent of Arctic sea ice (EIS) reached its annual minimum, which, based on data from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, was approximately 3.74 million km2 (1.44 million square miles). This value was about 40% lower than the climate average (~ 6.27 million km2) during the period 1980-2010. It was the second only after the lowest record (3.34 million km2) set on September 16, 2012, but significantly smaller than the second previous low (4.145 million km2, set for September 7, 2016) and third lowest (4.147 million km2, set for September 14, 2007), making 2020 the second lowest SIE year in the satellite era (42 years of data).

In 2020, a total of 39 institutions and organizations around the world submitted their September Pan-Arctic EIS Sea Ice Outlook. From June to August WIS, the median of all forecasts has remained fairly stable (4.33 million km2 in June, 4.36 million km2 in July, and 4.3 million km2 in August), well above the observed value of 3.92 million km2. This indicates that most forecasting systems overestimated the sea ice cover in September 2020.

The precise prediction of the Arctic EIS is still a global problem. Recently a comment posted in Letters of atmospheric and oceanic sciences summarized the forecast from 2009 to 2020 and found that the observed values ​​for most years (8 of 12) were outside the expected interquartile range of dynamic models, indicating that it is still difficult to predict accurately the Arctic HIA on – seasonal timescales (S2S), especially extreme years.

“Studies of sea ice in the Arctic require an improved ability to make more accurate predictions and better understand the physics of sea ice processes,” says Professor Wei, author of this commentary.

In the next step, more effort should be made to assimilate the observations of sea ice, atmosphere and ocean to generate a skillful initialization. Meanwhile, the sea ice forecast relies on a skillful atmospheric model to produce a high-quality atmospheric forecast. Finally, S2S systems should have the ability to capture changes in the properties of sea ice due to global warming, which produces younger and thinner sea ice as well as more melt ponds. Therefore, improved descriptions of sea ice processes in the sea ice model components of forecasting systems are needed.

Global warming is pushing the Arctic to a dangerous tipping point in which irreversible domino-like processes could be triggered. Therefore, it is essential to develop better Arctic sea ice forecasting systems to serve as navigation lights to guide us through this unexplored future climate.

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President Biden’s ‘lean’ budget request highlights climate, conservation and equity goals https://jacahuesca.com/president-bidens-lean-budget-request-highlights-climate-conservation-and-equity-goals/ https://jacahuesca.com/president-bidens-lean-budget-request-highlights-climate-conservation-and-equity-goals/#respond Mon, 26 Apr 2021 16:45:01 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/president-bidens-lean-budget-request-highlights-climate-conservation-and-equity-goals/

After months of anticipation, the Biden administration recently released a preview of its discretionary budget request for fiscal year 2022. While the president’s budget is only a request of Congress, it advises Congress on the drafting of annual spending bills.

This initial request outlines the Administration’s priorities and suggests that it is ready to invest in climate action (with a “whole-of-government” approach), conservation and social justice. Budget snapshot includes significant increases for key conservation agencies, including departments of the interior, agriculture, energy, and commerce (including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) ), as well as increases for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These federal departments oversee projects and programs that benefit birds, habitat and communities across the country.

“The birds tell us we need to invest in natural resources and climate action,” says Sarah Greenberger, senior vice president for conservation policy. “We hope that the strong initiatives and higher funding figures included in this draft budget will be reflected in the final budget sent to Congress.”

The President’s ‘lean’ budget request is light on the funding requests by item and by program normally included in a full budget, but provides a blueprint, including total expenditure amounts at the department level and for some large agencies. federal. The budget snapshot goes ahead with the theme “Build Back Better” – President Biden’s slogan for his plans to rebuild the US economy in the post-pandemic era. In addition to and alongside the U.S. Jobs Plan, released on March 31, 2021, the administration’s budget snapshot presents opportunities to revitalize our economy by restoring ecosystems and rebuilding communities. The credit allocation process and infrastructure packages currently being debated in Congress are supposed to complement each other.

Almost all agencies’ budget request includes a component on climate change, with a strong emphasis on treating the transition to a greener economy as an opportunity to create well-paying jobs that will grow the economy in the country. the future. The specific strengths of the agency include:

  • A 21% increase for the Environmental Protection Agency
  • A 10% increase for the Ministry of Energy
  • A 16% increase for the Ministry of the Interior

Despite the deep cuts proposed by the Trump administration, Congress continued to fund conservation priorities, with increases for a number of programs. Audubon is pleased to see this renewed commitment from the White House to fund these essential natural resource agencies. In addition, specific program highlights include:

  • $ 6.9 billion for NOAA, which conducts climate research, builds coastal resilience and provides climate tools and data to decision makers;
  • $ 3.6 billion for water infrastructure, including drinking water infrastructure;
  • $ 1.7 billion for energy-efficient renovations to homes, schools and federal buildings;
  • $ 815 million to integrate climate impacts into pre-disaster planning and projects; and
  • $ 450 million to rehabilitate and rehabilitate orphan oil and gas wells and mines.

The National Audubon Society will continue to advocate for these clean energy initiatives and other important bird priorities in FY22 appropriation bills. Last year, Audubon released our first ” Bird Budget ”which highlighted federal funding opportunities to protect birds, ranging from clean energy investments to habitat conservation to coastal restoration initiatives.

In order to bring back the birds, Congress must increase funding for important programs such as the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act, the North American Wetlands Conservation Act, and efforts that support the conservation of the Greater Sage-Grouse. In addition, specific geographic conservation efforts like the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, Delaware River Basin Restoration, and Everglades Restoration promote federally funded on-the-ground conservation projects. Funding for drought response, cooperative watershed management and aquatic ecosystem restoration programs will help tackle the mega drought that is affecting communities and wildlife across the West. We hope to see increased funding for NOAA programs such as Coastal Management Grants and Marine Sanctuaries and Protected Areas.

On the clean energy front, Audubon continues to advocate for increased research, development, demonstration and deployment in renewable energy – including increased funding for solar and wind programs within the Office of the energy efficiency and renewable energies from the Department of Energy and increased funding for the Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), which works with the private sector to advance high-impact energy technologies.

In addition to clean energy, land and water conservation and coastal restoration, Audubon supports a range of natural infrastructure financing opportunities in the process of ownership. Like roads and bridges, our natural landscapes – like wetlands, beaches and barrier islands – act as infrastructure, providing essential services to our communities. They serve as recreation spaces, improve our resilience to climate threats such as increased flooding and drought, and improve habitats for birds and other wildlife. Congress has a historic opportunity to harness America’s immense natural wealth in its efforts to support the economy while addressing both the causes and consequences of climate change.

The decline in bird populations is directly linked to climate change; the credit process highlights opportunities for Congress to fund conservation and climate programs that will slow and reverse damage to birds and their ecosystems. We urge the Biden administration to follow through on these conservation commitments in its full budget proposal, and we similarly urge Congress to ensure conservation programs are fully funded for FY22.


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NOAA issues new climate standards for the United States https://jacahuesca.com/noaa-issues-new-climate-standards-for-the-united-states/ https://jacahuesca.com/noaa-issues-new-climate-standards-for-the-united-states/#respond Mon, 26 Apr 2021 02:45:00 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/noaa-issues-new-climate-standards-for-the-united-states/

WABASH VALLEY (WTHI) – Climate and weather experts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration just released the new 30-year climate standard.

With nearly 15,000 weather stations reporting precipitation and more than 7,300 temperature stations in the United States, NOAA has released new climate normals for the United States.

The last 30-year study looked at temperature and precipitation values ​​between the years 1981 to 2010. The most recent study, the one this article explains, shows temperature and precipitation normals from 1991 to 2020.

NOAA is doing this just to see how our climate is changing.

The map below shows the evolution of precipitation.

You can see even here in the Wabash Valley that we have received at least half an inch of more rain from the last 30 year period to this 30 year period.

The map below shows the change in temperature.

Across the United States, the temperature has risen.

NOAA has several slides explaining a more in-depth analysis of the study.

You can go to NOAA.gov or click here for details.


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Saved from devastating fires in Santa Cruz, young salmon must now survive in the ocean https://jacahuesca.com/saved-from-devastating-fires-in-santa-cruz-young-salmon-must-now-survive-in-the-ocean/ https://jacahuesca.com/saved-from-devastating-fires-in-santa-cruz-young-salmon-must-now-survive-in-the-ocean/#respond Fri, 23 Apr 2021 21:42:09 +0000 https://jacahuesca.com/saved-from-devastating-fires-in-santa-cruz-young-salmon-must-now-survive-in-the-ocean/

The 6,000 coho salmon smolts, the fish equivalent of teenagers, were pulled from a 6-inch PVC pipe from their hatchery directly into Big Creek near Santa Cruz on Friday morning. Once in the water, they instinctively knew how to make their way to the larger Scott Creek and to the Pacific Ocean, where they were due to arrive within days.

“These fish have never been in the wild. They’ve been in a fiberglass tank, ”said Mathers Rowley, chairman of the board of the nonprofit Monterey Bay Salmon and Trout Project, which helped liberate the organization. Kingfisher Flat Hatchery. “When they touch the water, they know what to do. It’s something in their genetic memory.

The liveliness of the young fish was a sign of hope for a population that has all kinds of things against it. Part of California’s southernmost endangered central coast coho salmon population, the lives of the 14-month-old smolts have been ravaged by two natural disasters: last year’s wildfires and the drought this year.

They narrowly survived the August CZU lightning complex fire when it tore up the hatchery last summer, and their release on Friday was moved to ensure their passage to the Pacific was no longer possible. was not interrupted because of the drought.




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